ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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Thus, d117 is demonstrated that the use of less expensive cotton gin motes—the by-product of cotton ginning process—in blends with cleaned greige cotton lint can potentially be useful and competitive for many nonwoven end-use products where absorbency or moisture uptake, swelling, biodegradability, and sustainability are desirable.
However, limited use of cotton gin motes is made in traditional textiles made with spun yarns. Experimental materials and methods A commercially available bale of precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T.
Each blend was d1117 directly in the glass KFT vials by weight basis. The properties of the cotton materials are discussed in light of their water binding properties related to potential absorbent applications. The fabric production speed was 5 m per minute. The Scherrer formula was used to convert the peak width at half maximum pwhm to crystallite sizes perpendicular to the large peak with a shape constant of 1. The results have shown that the cotton gin mote fibers, compared to the polyester fibers, yield improved moisture uptake while giving comparable swelling attributes.
First chapter Depolymerization and Activation of Lignin: As a check, standard oven drying was used on the UC cotton and polyester fibers, generating a moisture content of 7.
ASTM D – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics
The calculated X-ray diffraction pattern is shown in Figure 3. In combination with surface-exposed cellulose from nonwoven hydroentanglement process conditions, unique fiber properties are retained when compared to scoured and bleached cotton.
Abstract Greige raw cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for use in absorbent nonwoven products. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. The cellulose-water interactions have been discussed in light of these findings.
The fluid dynamics of the electrochemical double-layer model enables measurement of functional properties similar to those that occur at the solid-liquid interface of incontinence materials [ 12 ]. This affords an economical source of highly cleaned absorbent greige cotton nonwovens with the retention of properties inherent to the traditional cotton fabrics that generally require costly and eco-sensitive chemical scouring and bleaching processes.
Thus, an increased capacity to hold water is observed as dd1117 in the relatively higher absorption capacity of the cotton by-product nonwovens, which have smaller cellulose crystallite size than the greige cotton Table 4. The ATSM method uses a sample of fabric that is 76 mm wide and cut to a length that equals 5.
Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Absorbent applications Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of its natural, native protective membrane ast, surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige cotton fiber. This is likely as well as it has previously been shown that the density of interfacial water strongly bound water on cellulose is increased when it is perturbed. The other method is the recent ASTM Karl Fischer titration method for water content developed for lint cotton, raw and processed.
In addition, the small range of KFT values of the cellulosic blends is due to the specificity of KFT to water compared to the weight loss as atm with the Kett infrared heating method.
Add to Alert PDF. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. All weights were made in a standard conditioned laboratory. Balanced material surface polarity, swelling, density, and moisture uptake is key to optimizing absorbent nonwovens for use in hygiene, incontinence, and even wound care applications, and the results of this study illustrate how these properties may be tuned in with cotton by products used in combination with greige cotton lint.
Some of the blends also included polyester fibers for comparison as were previously examined [ 10 ]. Proceed to Checkout Continue Shopping. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the individual gin motes, comber noils, and greige cotton UCC are shown in Figure 4.
Figure 1 diagrams the process of hydroentanglement. One method [ 15 ] is simple, portable, easy to use, and involves an infrared lamp to dry the samples. This study has shown that the ability of cotton gin mote fibers to modulate swelling and moisture uptake is beneficial in absorbent products.
It is an understatement to say that the nature of the binding of water to cotton plays a role in the swelling of the blended fabrics as are examined here. Absorbency characteristics of the various hydroentangled fabrics.
ASTM D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics
Nonwoven greige cotton compares well with other commercial materials when analyzed for its performance as an incontinence layer surrounding the absorbent core. Please first verify your email before subscribing to alerts. It further demonstrates the merit of focusing on material construction and analysis of fiber surface x1117 with novel by-product fibers at solid-liquid interfaces and the value of considering the molecular factors that influence properties of wettability and fluid transport as they exist in topsheet and layer 1d117 useful in absorbent prototypes, i.
Standards Subscriptions from ANSI provides a money-saving, multi-user solution for accessing standards. Keywords nonwoven cotton surface properties cellulose water of hydration electrokinetic by-products. However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention based on innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ].
The sample was secured in a paraffin base, which had a small zstm on the comber noil pattern. Two different measures of moisture uptake are also reported. This model is contrasted with experimental models, including one based on TEM images of a water swollen cotton fiber to image water-accessible surfaces. Water-accessible sites of cellulose are formed when cotton contacted by the high-pressure water jets during the nonwoven hydroentanglement process, which enhances the exposure of the primary and secondary cell wall of the fiber to an aqueous environment and results in an increase in cellulose-bound d117.
December 4th Reviewed: For all the fabrics, the low water pressure head was set to inject the water at 50 bars, and the two high water pressure heads were set at bars. This study demonstrates the versatility of nonwoven greige cotton when combined with cotton by-products as putative economical substitutes for synthetic fibers in absorbent applications.
UltraClean cotton, which is a form adtm greige cotton [ 2 ], was separately combined with the cotton gin motes and comber noils, whereupon the blends were carded, crosslapped, and subjected to light needle punching prior to their separate hydroentanglement at 50 bar wet-out water pressure and bar hydroentangling atsm pressure. The basket is dropped from a height of 25 mm atm a water bath, and the time it takes the sample and basket to sink is measured as sink time. Need more than one copy?